Last updated: Sep 17, 2019
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Shall goes in, shall goes out
What is SSH?
- Stands for Secure SHell
- appeared in mid 1990s, connecting to remote machines via internet (unsecure n/w)
- Application layer protocol,
sshdserver on standard port
- older protocols like
telnetwould sent everything in plain text. Not secure over internet
- packets could be sniffed and read by packet Sniffer
- Each user on machine has its own
Think of your SSH connections as tubes. Big tubes. Normally, you’ll reach through these tubes to run a shell on a remote computer.
ssh -L 123:localhost:456 firstname.lastname@example.org
This will forward all traffic from port 123 on my local machine to port 456 on example.com. But example.com would see the traffic coming from its own localhost.
ssh -L 123:google.com:456 email@example.com
This will forward all traffic from port 123 on my local machine to port 456 on google.com. After that it will establish an ssh session to example.com.
situation when example.com can connect to [google.com] host while your box can’t. For example, you have VPN connection which is restricted to a number of boxes, while you want to access host not in list. ssh -L 123:target.host.com:456 firstname.lastname@example.org.
ssh -R 123:localhost:456 email@example.com
This will establish an ssh session to firstname.lastname@example.org and forward all traffic from port 123 on example.com to port 456 on my local machine. My local machine will then see the traffic as coming from localhost.
ssh -R 123:google.com:456 email@example.com
This will establish an ssh session to firstname.lastname@example.org and forward all traffic from port 123 on example.com to port 456 on google.com. Unlike #2, example.com is used as the remote host.
There are three types of port forwarding with SSH:
Local port forwarding: connections from the SSH client are forwarded via the SSH server, then to a destination server
Remote port forwarding: connections from the SSH server are forwarded via the SSH client, then to a destination server
Dynamic port forwarding: connections from various programs are forwarded via the SSH client, then via the SSH server, and finally to several destination servers
Local port forwarding is the most common type. For example, local port forwarding lets you bypass a company firewall that blocks Wikipedia.
Remote port forwarding is less common. For example, remote port forwarding lets you connect from your SSH server to a computer on your company’s intranet.
Dynamic port forwarding is rarely used. For example, dynamic port forwarding lets you bypass a company firewall that blocks web access altogether. Although this is very powerful, it takes a lot of work to set up, and it’s usually easier to use local port forwarding for the specific sites you want to access.
How to create a SOCKS PROXY using SSH
Dynamic Port Forwarding, maybe when Port 80 is blocked,
ssh -N -D 9055 username@machine
-N Do not execute a remote command. This is useful for just forwarding ports.
curl http://ifconfig.co/country ssh -N -D 9055 username@machine curl --proxy socks5://127.0.0.1:9055 http://ifconfig.co/country
Using proxy with curl?
--proxytunnel or environment variable
Let chrome browser use SOCKS PROXY you created? Advanced proxy -> custome SOCKS
Any address from chrome would now be sent via 8181
Look at the ssh logs for more interesting details
On Ubuntu servers, you can find who logged in when (and from where) in the file
tail --follow /var/log/auth.log | grep sshd
- Practically, a SOCKS server proxies TCP connections to an arbitrary IP address, and provides a means for UDP packets to be forwarded.
- SOCKS is a de facto standard for circuit-level gateways
Remove ssh server? Diabling SSH access
systemctl status sshd systemctl stop sshd systemctl disable sshd
Save them in
ssh/config and quickly jump around proxies
Managing multiple keys?
ssh -R 8181:localhost:3389 user@machine
Crack SSH password?
- scan network with
- Connect to the SAME we want to attack
- Find a target computer
nmap -sS 192.168.0.1 -A
- Creata a
wordlistor dictionary file to attack
- Brute force with
hydar -l AttackComputer -p 'wordlist.txt' 192.168..0.8 ssh
SSH LOCAL and REMOTE Port Forwarding
ssh -L 22222:localhost:33333 email@example.com ssh -R 1234:localhost:4321 firstname.lastname@example.org
Local Port Forwarding
Recieving Emails from remote server
myLocalHost% ssh -L localhost:9143:myRemoteHost:143 myRemoteHost
ssh -L 127.0.0.1:80:intra.example.com:80 gw.example.com ssh -L 9000:youtube.com:80 email@example.com
This example opens a connection to the gw.example.com jump server, and forwards any connection to port 80 on the local machine to port 80 on intra.example.com.
Remote Port forwarding
- Take any service locally accessable via a visible machine through SSH.
- We do not give away the IP og machine running service
- Make a webapp running on local available to internet via another machine
- share a service running on your machien, through internet
Difference with LOCAL?
- Connect via vncserver
5901, ask password and enter it, bam connected. Not very secure
- Forwarda local port to a specific port (where we have already established our tunnel)
80->5901on local and tunnel is established b/w
ssh -R 8080:localhost:80 public.example.com
This allows anyone on the remote server to connect to TCP port 8080 on the remote server. The connection will then be tunneled back to the client host, and the client then makes a TCP connection to port 80 on localhost. Any other host name or IP address could be used instead of localhost to specify the host to connect to.
This particular example would be useful for giving someone on the outside access to an internal web server.
- OPENING BACKDOORS INTO THE ENTERPRISE
- Use SSH Port Forwarding to connect to DIFFERENT networks
- elliptic curve cryptography that offers a better security with faster performance compared to DSA or ECDSA.
ssh-keygen -o -a 100 -t ed25519 -f ~/.ssh/id_ed25519 -C "firstname.lastname@example.org"
- authorized key
- identity key
- keeps decrypted key in memory
How to generrate keys and add them?
ssh-keygen -t rsa ssh-copy-id -i ~/.ssh/id_ed25519.pub -p 221 email@example.com ssh-agent eval (ssh-agent) ssh-add ~/.ssh/id_ed25519
Disable the Password for Root Login?
sudo nano /etc/ssh/sshd_config PermitRootLogin without-password sudo systemctl reload sshd.service
ssh keys Permissions
Typically you want the permissions to be:
- .ssh directory: 700
- public key (.pub file): 644
- private key (id_rsa): 600
lastly your home directory should not be writeable by the group or others (at most 755 (drwxr-xr-x)).
How to Running a command script from localmachine on remote machine
# Pseudo terminal individual command ssh user@machine lsb_release --all ssh firstname.lastname@example.org -T uname -a # Pesudo terminal script ssh user@machine 'bash -s' < local_script.sh
HOw many users can login into a linux system via SSH? Whats the limit?
When logging in using SSH, you use a pseudo-terminal (a pty) allocated to the SSH daemon, not a real one (a tty). Pseudo-terminals are created and destroyed as needed. You can find the number of ptys allowed to be allocated at one time at /proc/sys/kernel/pty/max, and this value can be modified using the kernel.pty.max sysctl variable. Assuming that no other ptys are in use, that would be your limit.
users are the canonical tools for accessing information about logged in users. last and lastlog also contain historical data.
X11 Forwarding from docker to localhost
ssh -XC username@hostname
Passwordless access by Cryptographic Keys How to enable passwordless access for all users on target machine?
Get all service with their default port information at
sudo nmap -sS -O localhost
$$ where, -sS scan SYN -sT scan TCP -sU scan UDP -O os related information $$
How to edit remote files from local editor
When vim is compiled with
vim --version | ack client +clientserver vim scp://user@myserver[:port]//path/to/file.txt vim scp://email@example.com/spi-traffic.sh OR sudo apt-get install sshfs sudo adduser <username> fuse mkdir ~/remoteserv sshfs -o idmap=user <username>@<ipaddress>:/remotepath ~/remoteserv
Can as add base configuration for all hosts in
ss/configfile? Hierarchy based config, and then the host spefic config?
Host * AddKeysToAgent yes UseKeychain yes
How to use remote interpretors (like python) on remote machine from localhost?
Remote Development using SSH?
How to find out which port is used by client to send request?
sudo netstat --tcp --programs --numeric | grep ssh
Difference b/w VPN and PROXY?
- All / specific apps/traffic
What is BIND_ADDRESS?2
- In general, an address binding is an association between a service (e.g., SSH) and an IP address. A host may have multiple IP addresses (e.g., 127.0.0.1, 192.168.1.2). Address binding allows you to run a service on some or all of these addresses.
How to detect Port Forwarding?
How to check if we have SSH POrt forwarding enabled?
lsof -i | grep LISTEN